Fair Value Measurements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||
Fair Value Measurements
Accounting guidelines for measuring fair value establish a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy categorizes assets and liabilities measured at fair value into one of three different levels depending on the observability of the inputs employed in the measurement. The three levels are defined as follows:
Level 1 – Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Other inputs that are observable directly or indirectly such as quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for which there is little or no market data and which the Company makes its own assumptions about how market participants would price the assets and liabilities.
Fair value of financial instruments
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted investments. The carrying amounts for these instruments approximate fair value due to the short-term nature or maturity of the instruments.
Debt. The carrying amount of borrowings outstanding under the Credit Facility approximate fair value as the borrowings bear interest at variable rates and are reflective of market rates. The following table presents the principal amounts of the Company’s senior notes with the fair values measured using quoted secondary market trading prices which are designated as Level 2 within the valuation hierarchy. See “Note 7 - Borrowings” for further discussion.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis
Certain assets and liabilities are reported at fair value on a recurring basis in the consolidated balance sheet. The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate fair value:
Commodity derivative instruments. The fair value of commodity derivative instruments is derived using a third-party income approach valuation model that utilizes market-corroborated inputs that are observable over the term of the commodity derivative contract. The Company’s fair value calculations also incorporate an estimate of the counterparties’ default risk for commodity derivative assets and an estimate of the Company’s default risk for commodity derivative liabilities. As the inputs in the model are substantially observable over the term of the commodity derivative contract and there is a wide availability of quoted market prices for similar commodity derivative contracts, the Company designates its commodity derivative instruments as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy. See “Note 8 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” for further discussion.
Contingent consideration arrangements - embedded derivative financial instruments. The embedded options within the contingent consideration arrangements are considered financial instruments under ASC 815. The Company engages a third-party valuation specialist using an option pricing model approach to measure the fair value of the embedded options on a recurring basis. The valuation includes significant inputs such as forward oil price curves, time to expiration, and implied volatility. The model provides for the probability that the specified pricing thresholds would be met for each settlement period, estimates undiscounted payouts, and risk adjusts for the discount rates inclusive of adjustments for each of the counterparty’s credit quality. As these inputs are substantially observable for the full term of the contingent consideration arrangements, the inputs are considered Level 2 inputs within the fair value hierarchy. See “Note 8 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” for further discussion.
The following tables present the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis
Acquisitions. The fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, other than the contingent consideration arrangements which are discussed above, are measured as of the acquisition date by a third-party valuation specialist using the income approach based on inputs that are not observable in the market and are therefore designated as Level 3 inputs. Significant inputs include expected discounted future cash flows from estimated reserve quantities, estimates for timing and costs to produce and develop reserves, oil and natural gas forward prices, and a risk adjusted discount rate. See “Note 4 - Acquisitions and Divestitures” for additional discussion.
Asset retirement obligations. The Company measures the fair value of asset retirement obligations as of the date a well begins drilling or when production equipment and facilities are installed using a discounted cash flow model based on inputs that are not observable in the market and therefore are designated as Level 3 within the valuation hierarchy. Significant inputs to the fair value measurement of asset retirement obligations include estimates of the costs of plugging and abandoning oil and gas wells, removing production equipment and facilities and restoring the surface of the land as well as estimates of the economic lives of the oil and gas wells and future inflation rates. See “Note 14 - Asset Retirement Obligations” for additional discussion.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef