Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company after elimination of intercompany transactions and balances and are presented in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The Company proportionately consolidates its undivided interests in oil and gas properties as well as investments in unincorporated entities, such as partnerships and limited liability companies where the Company, as a partner or member, has undivided interests in the oil and gas properties. In the opinion of management, the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments and all intercompany account balance and transaction eliminations, necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position, results of its operations and cash flows for the periods indicated. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make judgments affecting estimates and assumptions for reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates of proved oil and gas reserves are used in calculating depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”) of proved oil and gas property costs, the present value of estimated future net revenues included in the full cost ceiling test, estimates of future taxable income used in assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, and the estimated timing of cash outflows underlying asset retirement obligations. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in the estimation of proved oil and gas reserves and in the projection of future rates of production and the timing of development expenditures. Other significant estimates are involved in determining asset retirement obligations, acquisition date fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, impairments of unevaluated leasehold costs, fair values of commodity derivative assets and liabilities, fair values of contingent consideration arrangements, grant date fair value of stock-based awards, and contingency, litigation, and environmental liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable, net consists primarily of receivables from oil, natural gas, and NGL purchasers and joint interest owners in properties the Company operates. The Company generally has the right to withhold future revenue distributions to recover past due receivables from joint interest owners. Generally, the Company’s oil, natural gas, and NGL receivables are collected within 30 to 90 days. The Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts and bad debt expense was immaterial for all period presented.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers
The concentration of accounts receivable from entities in the oil and gas industry may impact the Company’s overall credit risk such that these entities may be similarly affected by changes in economic and other industry conditions. The Company does not believe the loss of any one of its purchasers would materially affect its ability to sell the oil and gas it produces as other purchasers are available in its primary areas of activity. The Company had the following major customers that represented 10% or more of its total revenues for at least one of the periods presented:
* - Less than 10% for the applicable year.
The Company’s counterparties to its commodity derivative instruments include lenders under the Company’s credit agreement (“Lender Counterparty”) as well as counterparties who are not lenders under the Company’s credit agreement (“Non-Lender Counterparty”). As each Lender Counterparty has an investment grade credit rating and the Company has obtained a guaranty from each Non-Lender Counterparty’s parent company which has an investment grade credit rating, the Company believes it does not have significant credit risk with its commodity derivative instrument counterparties. Although the Company does not currently anticipate nonperformance from its counterparties, it continually monitors the credit ratings of each Lender Counterparty and each Non-Lender Counterparty’s parent company. The Company executes its derivative instruments with multiple counterparties to minimize its credit exposure to any individual counterparty.
Oil and Natural Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting under which all productive and nonproductive costs directly associated with property acquisition, exploration, and development activities are capitalized as oil and gas properties. Internal costs that are directly related to acquisition, exploration, and development activities, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, are capitalized to either evaluated or unevaluated oil and gas properties based on the type of activity. Internal costs related to production and similar activities are expensed as incurred.
Proceeds from the sale or disposition of evaluated and unevaluated oil and natural gas properties are accounted for as a reduction of evaluated oil and gas property costs unless the sale significantly alters the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves, in which case a gain or loss is recognized. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any sales of oil and gas properties that significantly altered such relationship.
Capitalized oil and gas property costs are amortized on an equivalent unit-of-production method, converting natural gas to barrels of oil equivalent at the ratio of six thousand cubic feet of gas to one barrel of oil, which represents their approximate relative energy content. The equivalent unit-of-production depletion rate is computed on a quarterly basis by dividing current quarter production by proved oil and gas reserves at the beginning of the quarter then applying such amortization rate to evaluated oil and gas property costs, which includes estimated asset retirement costs, less accumulated amortization, plus estimated future expenditures to be incurred in developing proved reserves, net of estimated salvage values.
Excluded from this amortization are costs associated with unevaluated leasehold and seismic costs associated with specific unevaluated properties and related capitalized interest. Unevaluated property costs are transferred to evaluated property costs at such time as wells are completed on the properties or the Company determines that these costs have been impaired. The Company assesses properties on an individual basis or as a group and considers the following factors, among others, to determine if these costs have been impaired: exploration program and intent to drill, remaining lease term, and the assignment of proved reserves. Geological and geophysical costs not associated with specific prospects are recorded to evaluated oil and gas property costs as incurred. The amount of interest costs capitalized is determined on a quarterly basis based on the average balance of unproved properties and the weighted average interest rate of outstanding borrowings. Capitalized interest cannot exceed gross interest expense.
Under full cost accounting rules, the Company reviews the net book value of its oil and gas properties each quarter. Under these rules, the net book value of oil and gas properties, less related deferred income taxes, are limited to the “cost center ceiling” equal to (i) the sum of (a) the present value of estimated future net revenues from proved oil and gas reserves, less estimated future expenditures to be incurred in developing and producing the proved reserves computed using a discount factor of 10%, (b) the costs of unevaluated properties not being amortized, and (c) the lower of cost or estimated fair value of unevaluated properties included in the costs being amortized; less (ii) related income tax effects. Any excess of the net book value of oil and gas properties, less related deferred income taxes, over the cost center ceiling is recognized as a write-down of evaluated oil and gas properties. A write-down recognized in one period may not be reversed in a subsequent period even if higher commodity prices in the future result in a cost center ceiling in excess of the net book value of oil and gas properties, less related deferred income taxes.
The estimated future net revenues used in the cost center ceiling are calculated using the average realized prices for sales of oil, NGLs, and natural gas on the first calendar day of each month during the 12-month period prior to the end of the current quarter (“12-Month Average Realized Price”), held flat for the life of the production, except where different prices are fixed and determinable from applicable contracts for the remaining term of those contracts. Prices do not include the impact of commodity derivative instruments as the Company elected not to meet the criteria to qualify its commodity derivative instruments for hedge accounting treatment. The Company did not recognize a write-down of evaluated oil and natural gas properties for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017.
Other Property and Equipment
The Company depreciates its other property and equipment using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives of three to twenty years. Depreciation expense of $0.7 million, $1.1 million and $0.9 million relating to other property and equipment was included in “General and administrative expense” in the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company reviews its other property and equipment for impairment when indicators of impairment exist.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs associated with the Company’s senior notes are classified as a reduction of the related senior notes carrying value on the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized to interest expense using the straight-line method over the terms of the related senior notes. Deferred financing costs associated with the revolving credit facility are classified in “Other long-term assets” in the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized to interest expense using the straight-line method over the term of the facility. Amortization of deferred financing costs, net of amortization of premiums, of $2.9 million, $2.5 million and $2.2 million were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The Company records an estimate of the fair value of liabilities for obligations associated with plugging and abandoning oil and gas wells, removing production equipment and facilities and restoring the surface of the land in accordance with the terms of oil and gas leases and applicable local, state and federal laws. Estimates involved in determining asset retirement obligations include the future plugging and abandonment costs of wells and related facilities, the ultimate productive life of the properties, a credit-adjusted risk-free discount rate and an inflation factor in order to determine the present value of the asset retirement obligation. The present value of the asset retirement obligations is accreted each period and the increase to the obligation is reported in “Depreciation, depletion and amortization” in the consolidated statements of operations. To the extent future revisions to these assumptions impact the present value of the existing asset retirement obligation liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to evaluated properties in the consolidated balance sheets. See “Note 14 - Asset Retirement Obligations” for additional information.
The Company uses commodity derivative instruments to mitigate the effects of commodity price volatility for a portion of its forecasted sales of production and achieve a more predictable level of cash flow. All commodity derivative instruments are recorded in the consolidated balance sheets as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. The Company nets its commodity derivative instrument fair value amounts executed with the same counterparty to a single asset or liability pursuant to International Swap Dealers Association Master Agreements (“ISDAs”), which provide for net settlement over the term of the contract and in the event of default or termination of the contract. The Company does not enter into commodity derivative instruments for speculative purposes.
The Company is also party to contingent consideration arrangements that include obligations to pay or rights to receive additional consideration if commodity prices exceed specified thresholds during certain periods in the future. These contingent consideration assets and liabilities are required to be bifurcated and accounted for separately as derivative instruments as they are not considered to be clearly and closely related to the host contract, and recognized at their acquisition or divestiture date fair value in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company has elected not to meet the criteria to qualify its commodity derivative instruments for hedge accounting treatment. As such, all gains and losses as a result of changes in the fair value of commodity derivative instruments, as well as its contingent consideration arrangements, are recognized as “(Gain) loss on derivative contracts” in the consolidated statements of operations in the period in which
the changes occur. See “Note 8 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” and “Note 9 - Fair Value Measurements” for further discussion.
The Company recognizes revenues from the sales of oil and natural gas to its customers and presents them disaggregated on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Revenue is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Revenue accruals are recorded monthly and are based on estimated production delivered to a purchaser and the expected price to be received. Variances between estimates and the actual amounts received are recorded in the month payment is received. See “Note 3 - Revenue Recognition” for further discussion.
Income taxes are recognized based on earnings reported for tax return purposes in addition to a provision for deferred income taxes. Deferred income taxes are recognized at the end of each reporting period for the future tax consequences of cumulative temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on existing tax laws and enacted statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to affect taxable income. GAAP requires the recognition of a deferred tax asset for net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. The Company assesses the realizability of its deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis by considering all available evidence (both positive and negative) to determine whether it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized and a valuation allowance is required. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company did not have a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. See “Note 12 - Income Taxes” for further discussion.
The Company grants restricted stock unit awards that may be settled in common stock (“RSU Equity Awards”) or cash (“Cash-Settled RSU Awards”), some of which are subject to achievement of certain performance conditions. In addition, as a result of the Merger, all stock appreciation rights to be settled in cash (“Cash SARs”) previously granted by Carrizo that were outstanding as of closing were canceled and converted into a vested Cash SAR covering shares of the Company’s common stock. Share-based compensation expense is recognized as “General and administrative expense” in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company accounts for forfeitures of equity-based incentive awards as they occur. See “Note 10 - Share-Based Compensation” for further details of the awards discussed below.
RSU Equity Awards and Cash-Settled RSU Awards. Share-based compensation expense for RSU Equity Awards is based on the grant-date fair value and recognized over the vesting period (generally three years for employees and one year for non-employee directors) using the straight-line method. For RSU Equity Awards with vesting terms subject to a performance condition, share-based compensation expense is based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model with the estimated value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years). Cash-Settled RSU Awards subject to a performance condition that the Company expects or is required to settle in cash, are accounted for as liabilities with share-based compensation expense based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model, with the estimated fair value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years).
Cash SARs. Cash SARs previously granted by Carrizo that were outstanding at closing of the Merger were canceled and converted into a Cash SAR covering shares of the Company’s common stock, with the conversion calculated as prescribed in the agreement governing the Merger. The Cash SARs were recorded at their acquisition date fair value, which was determined using a Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model, with the fair value liability subsequently remeasured at the end of each reporting period. The liability for Cash SARs is classified as “Other current liabilities” in the consolidated balance sheets as all outstanding awards are vested. The Cash SARs will expire between one and seven years, depending on the date of grant.
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
The following table sets forth supplemental cash flow information for the periods indicated:
Earnings per Share
The Company’s basic net income attributable to common shareholders per common share is based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted net income attributable to common shareholders per common share is calculated using the treasury stock method and is based on the weighted average number of common shares and all potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year which include RSU Equity Awards and common stock warrants. See “Note 6 - Earnings Per Share” for further discussion.
Industry Segment and Geographic Information
The Company operates in one industry segment, which is the exploration, development, and production of crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas. All of the Company’s operations are located in the United States and currently all revenues are attributable to customers located in the United States.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Leases. In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842): Amendments to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842): Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842): Codification Improvements. Together these related amendments to GAAP represent ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”).
Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 842, using the modified retrospective approach and did not have a cumulative-effect adjustment in retained earnings as a result of the adoption. ASC 842 requires lessees to recognize a liability representing the obligation to make lease payments and a related right-of-use (“ROU”) asset for virtually all lease transactions and disclose key quantitative and qualitative information about leasing arrangements. However, ASC 842 does not apply to leases to explore for or use minerals, oil or natural gas resources, including the right to explore for those natural resources and rights to use the land in which those natural resources are contained. The Company engaged a third-party consultant to assist with assessing its existing contracts, as well as future potential contracts, and to determine the impact of its application on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The contract evaluation process included review of drilling rig contracts, office facility leases, compressors, field vehicles and equipment, general corporate leased equipment, and other existing arrangements to support its operations that may contain a lease component.
Upon adoption, the Company implemented policy elections and practical expedients which include the following:
Through the implementation process, the Company evaluated each of its lease arrangements and enhanced its systems to track and calculate additional information required upon adoption of this standard. Adoption of ASC 842 did not materially change the Company’s consolidated statements of operations or consolidated statements of cash flows. See “Note 13 - Leases” for further discussion.
Recently Issued ASUs
None that are expected to have a material impact on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef