Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company after elimination of intercompany transactions and balances and are presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The Company proportionately consolidates its undivided interests in oil and gas properties as well as investments in unincorporated entities, such as partnerships and limited liability companies where the Company, as a partner or member, has undivided interests in the oil and gas properties. In the opinion of management, the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position, results of its operations and cash flows for the periods indicated. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation. Such reclassifications did not have a material impact on prior period financial statements. The Company evaluates events subsequent to the balance sheet date through the date the financial statements are issued.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments affecting estimates and assumptions for reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates of proved oil and gas reserves are used in calculating depreciation, depletion and amortization (“DD&A”) of evaluated oil and gas property costs, the present value of estimated future net revenues included in the full cost ceiling test, estimates of future taxable income used in assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, and the estimated timing of cash outflows underlying asset retirement obligations. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in the estimation of proved oil and gas reserves and in the projection of future rates of production and the timing of development expenditures. Other significant estimates are involved in determining asset retirement obligations, acquisition date fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, impairments of unevaluated leasehold costs, fair values of commodity derivative assets and liabilities, and litigation liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable, net consists primarily of receivables from oil, natural gas, and NGL purchasers and joint interest owners in properties the Company operates. The Company generally has the right to withhold future revenue distributions to recover past due receivables from joint interest owners. Generally, the Company’s oil, natural gas, and NGL receivables are collected within 30 to 90 days. The Company’s allowance for credit losses and bad debt expense was immaterial for all periods presented.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Major Customers
The concentration of accounts receivable from entities in the oil and gas industry may impact the Company’s overall credit risk such that these entities may be similarly affected by changes in economic and other industry conditions. The Company does not believe the loss of any one of its purchasers would materially affect its ability to sell the oil and gas it produces as other purchasers are available in its primary areas of activity. The Company had the following major customers that represented 10% or more of its oil, natural gas and NGL revenues for at least one of the periods presented:
(1) The customers that represented over 10% of the Company’s sales of purchased oil and gas were Vitol Inc., for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, and Plains Marketing, L.P., for the year ended December 31, 2022.
* - Less than 10% for the applicable year.
See “Note 8 – Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” for discussion of credit risk related with the Company’s commodity derivative counterparties.
Oil and Natural Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting under which all productive and nonproductive costs directly associated with property acquisition, exploration, and development activities are capitalized as oil and gas properties. Internal costs that are directly related to acquisition, exploration, and development activities, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, are capitalized to either evaluated or unevaluated oil and gas properties based on the type of activity. Internal costs related to production and similar activities are expensed as incurred.
Proceeds from divestitures of evaluated and unevaluated oil and natural gas properties are accounted for as a reduction of evaluated oil and gas property costs unless the sale significantly alters the relationship between capitalized costs and estimated proved reserves, in which case a gain or loss is recognized. For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company did not have any sales of oil and gas properties that significantly altered such relationship.
From time to time, the Company exchanges undeveloped acreage with third parties. The exchanges are recorded at fair value and the difference is accounted for as an adjustment of capitalized costs with no gain or loss recognized pursuant to the rules governing full cost accounting, unless such adjustment would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves of oil, natural gas, and NGLs.
Capitalized oil and gas property costs are amortized on an equivalent unit-of-production method, converting natural gas to barrels of oil equivalent at the ratio of six thousand cubic feet of gas to one barrel of oil, which represents their approximate relative energy content. The equivalent unit-of-production depletion rate is computed on a quarterly basis by dividing current quarter production by estimated proved oil and gas reserves at the beginning of the quarter then applying such depletion rate to evaluated oil and gas property costs, which include estimated asset retirement costs, less accumulated amortization, plus estimated future expenditures to be incurred in developing proved reserves, net of estimated salvage values.
Excluded from this amortization are costs associated with unevaluated leasehold and seismic costs associated with specific unevaluated properties and related capitalized interest. Unevaluated property costs are transferred to evaluated property costs when the proved reserves have been assigned to the properties or the Company determines that these costs have been impaired. The Company assesses properties on an individual basis or as a group and considers, among other things, the exploration program and intent to drill, as well as remaining lease term to determine if these costs have been impaired. Geological and geophysical costs not associated with specific prospects are recorded to evaluated oil and gas property costs as incurred. The amount of interest costs capitalized is determined on a quarterly basis based on the average balance of unevaluated properties and the weighted average interest rate of outstanding borrowings.
Under full cost accounting rules, the Company reviews the net book value of its oil and gas properties each quarter. Under these rules, the net book value of oil and gas properties, less related deferred income taxes, are limited to the “cost center ceiling” equal to (i) the sum of (a) the present value of estimated future net revenues from estimated proved oil and gas reserves, less estimated future expenditures to be incurred in developing and producing the estimated proved oil and gas reserves computed using a discount factor of 10%, (b) the costs of unevaluated properties not being amortized, and (c) the lower of cost or estimated fair value of unevaluated properties included in the costs being amortized; less (ii) related income tax effects. Any excess of the net book value of oil and gas
properties, less related deferred income taxes, over the cost center ceiling is recognized as an impairment of evaluated oil and gas properties. An impairment recognized in one period may not be reversed in a subsequent period even if higher commodity prices in the future result in a cost center ceiling in excess of the net book value of oil and gas properties, less related deferred income taxes.
The estimated future net revenues used in the cost center ceiling are calculated using the 12-Month Average Realized Price of oil, NGLs, and natural gas, held flat for the life of the production, except where different prices are fixed and determinable from applicable contracts for the remaining term of those contracts. Prices do not include the impact of commodity derivative instruments as the Company elected not to meet the criteria to qualify its commodity derivative instruments for hedge accounting treatment. The Company did not recognize impairments of evaluated oil and gas properties for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. Primarily as a result of a 31% decrease in the 12-Month Average Realized Price of oil, the Company recognized impairments of evaluated oil and gas properties of $2.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Depreciation of other property and equipment is recognized using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives ranging from to twenty years.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs associated with the Unsecured Senior Notes and previously with the Second Lien Notes, both defined below, are classified as a reduction of the related carrying value on the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the terms of the related debt. Deferred financing costs associated with the Credit Facility, as defined below, are classified in “Other long-term assets” in the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized to interest expense using the straight-line method over the term of the facility.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The Company records an estimate of the fair value of liabilities for obligations associated with plugging and abandoning oil and gas wells, removing production equipment and facilities and restoring the surface of the land in accordance with the terms of oil and gas leases and applicable local, state and federal laws. Estimates involved in determining asset retirement obligations include the future plugging and abandonment costs of wells and related facilities, the ultimate productive life of the properties, a credit-adjusted risk-free discount rate and an inflation factor in order to determine the present value of the asset retirement obligation. The present value of the asset retirement obligations is accreted each period and the increase to the obligation is reported in “Depreciation, depletion and amortization” in the consolidated statements of operations. To the extent future revisions to these assumptions impact the present value of the existing asset retirement obligation liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to evaluated oil and gas properties in the consolidated balance sheets. See “Note 14 – Asset Retirement Obligations” for additional information.
The Company uses commodity derivative instruments to mitigate the effects of commodity price volatility for a portion of its forecasted sales of production and achieve a more predictable level of cash flow. The Company does not enter into commodity derivative instruments for speculative or trading purposes. All commodity derivative instruments are recorded in the consolidated balance sheets as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. The Company nets its commodity derivative instrument fair value amounts executed with the same counterparty to a single asset or liability pursuant to International Swap Dealers Association Master Agreements (“ISDA Agreements”), which provide for net settlement over the term of the contract and in the event of default or termination of the contract.
Settlements of the Company’s commodity derivative instruments are based on the difference between the contract price or prices specified in the derivative instrument and a benchmark price, such as the NYMEX price. To determine the fair value of the Company’s derivative instruments, the Company utilizes present value methods that include assumptions about commodity prices based on those observed in underlying markets. See “Note 9 – Fair Value Measurements” for additional information regarding fair value.
The Company has elected not to meet the criteria to qualify its commodity derivative instruments for hedge accounting treatment. As such, all gains and losses as a result of changes in the fair value of commodity derivative instruments are recognized as “(Gain) loss on derivative contracts” in the consolidated statements of operations in the period in which the changes occur. See “Note 8 – Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” and “Note 9 – Fair Value Measurements” for further discussion.
The Company recognizes revenues from the sales of oil, natural gas, and NGLs to its customers and presents them disaggregated on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Revenue is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer.
For the Company’s product sales that have a contract term greater than one year, it has utilized the practical expedient in Accounting Standards Codification 606-10-50-14, which states the Company is not required to disclose the transaction price allocated to remaining
performance obligations if the variable consideration is allocated entirely to a wholly unsatisfied performance obligation. Under these sales contracts, each unit of product generally represents a separate performance obligation; therefore, future volumes are wholly unsatisfied and disclosure of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations is not required.
The Company records revenue in the month production is delivered to the purchaser. However, settlement statements for sales may not be received for 30 to 90 days after the date production is delivered, and as a result, the Company is required to estimate the amount of production delivered to the purchaser and the price that will be received for the sale of the product. The Company records the differences between estimates and the actual amounts received for product sales in the month that payment is received from the purchaser. The Company has existing internal controls for its revenue estimation process and related accruals, and any identified differences between its revenue estimates and actual revenue received historically have not been significant. See “Note 3 – Revenue Recognition” for further discussion.
Income taxes are recognized based on earnings reported for tax return purposes in addition to a provision for deferred income taxes. Deferred income taxes are recognized at the end of each reporting period for the future tax consequences of cumulative temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on existing tax laws and enacted statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to affect taxable income. U.S. GAAP requires the recognition of a deferred tax asset for net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. The Company assesses the realizability of its deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis by considering all available evidence (both positive and negative) to determine whether it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized and a valuation allowance is required. See “Note 12 – Income Taxes” for further discussion.
The Company grants restricted stock unit awards that may be settled in common stock (“RSU Equity Awards”) or cash (“Cash-Settled RSU Awards”), some of which are subject to achievement of certain performance conditions. Share-based compensation expense is recognized as “General and administrative expense” in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company accounts for forfeitures of equity-based incentive awards as they occur. See “Note 10 – Share-Based Compensation” for further details of the awards discussed below.
RSU Equity Awards and Cash-Settled RSU Awards. Share-based compensation expense for RSU Equity Awards is based on the grant-date fair value and recognized over the vesting period (generally three years for employees and one year for non-employee directors) using the straight-line method. For RSU Equity Awards with vesting terms subject to a performance condition, share-based compensation expense is based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model with the estimated value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years). Cash-Settled RSU Awards subject to a performance condition that the Company expects, or is required, to settle in cash are accounted for as liabilities with share-based compensation expense based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model, with the estimated fair value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years).
Cash SARs. Stock appreciation rights to be settled in cash (“Cash SARs” and together with Cash-Settled RSU Awards, the “Cash-Settled Awards”) are remeasured at fair value at the end of each reporting period with the change in fair value recorded as share-based compensation expense. The liability for Cash SARs is classified as “Other current liabilities” in the consolidated balance sheets as all outstanding awards are vested. The Cash SARs outstanding will expire between and three years, depending on the date of grant.
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
The following table sets forth supplemental cash flow information for the periods indicated:
(1) The Company did not pay any federal income tax for any of the years in the three-year period ending December 31, 2022. For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, the Company paid approximately $0.2 million, $3.2 million, and $1.5 million, respectively, in state income taxes.
Earnings per Share
The Company’s basic net income (loss) per common share is based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is calculated using the treasury stock method and is based on the weighted average number of common shares and all potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year which include RSU Equity Awards and common stock warrants. When a net loss per common share exists, all potentially dilutive common shares outstanding are anti-dilutive and are therefore excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding. See “Note 6 – Earnings Per Share” for further discussion.
Industry Segment and Geographic Information
The Company operates in one industry segment, which is the exploration, development, and production of crude oil, natural gas, and NGLs, and all of the Company’s operations are located in the United States.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Debt. In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) (“ASU 2020-06”). ASU 2020-06 was issued to reduce the complexity associated with accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. The guidance is to be applied using either a modified retrospective or a fully retrospective method. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 did not have a material impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting StandardsIn March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (“ASU 2020-04”) followed by ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope (“ASU 2021-01”), issued in January 2021 to provide clarifying guidance regarding the scope of Topic 848. ASU 2020-04 was issued to provide optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. Generally, the guidance is to be applied as of any date from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020, or prospectively from a date within an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020, up to the date that the financial statements are available to be issued. ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 are effective for all entities through December 31, 2022. In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-06 which extend the effective date through December 31, 2024. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not elected to use the optional guidance and continues to evaluate the options provided by ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01. Please refer to “Note 7 – Borrowings” for discussion of the Credit Agreement (as defined below) recently entered into which replaced all provisions and related definitions regarding LIBOR with SOFR.