Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments affecting estimates and assumptions for reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses. Management regularly evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including those related to valuation of oil and natural gas properties, future asset retirement obligations, income taxes and valuation of deferred tax assets, fair value measurements as it relates to financial instruments, material transactions, and commodity derivatives, and contingency, litigation, and environmental liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable consists primarily of accrued oil and natural gas production receivables and joint interest receivables from outside working interest owners.
Revenue Recognition and Natural Gas Balancing
Previously, the Company elected to utilize the entitlements method to account for natural gas production imbalances, which is no longer applicable. In conjunction with the Company’s adoption of the new revenue recognition accounting standards, there was no material impact to the financial statements due to this change in accounting for its production imbalances. Natural gas balancing receivables and payables were immaterial as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. See Note 3 for additional information on revenue recognition.
Oil and Natural Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for its exploration and development activities. Under this method of accounting, the cost of both successful and unsuccessful exploration and development activities are capitalized as oil and gas properties. Such amounts include the cost of drilling and equipping productive wells, dry hole costs, lease acquisition costs, delay rentals, interest capitalized on unevaluated leases, other costs related to exploration and development activities, and site restoration, dismantlement and abandonment costs capitalized in accordance with asset retirement obligation accounting guidance. Costs capitalized also include any internal costs that are directly related to exploration and development activities, including salaries and benefits, but do not include any costs related to production, general corporate overhead or similar activities.
When applicable, proceeds from the sale or disposition of oil and natural gas properties are accounted for as a reduction to capitalized costs through adjustments to accumulated depreciation, depletion, amortization and impairment unless the sale would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves, in which case a gain or loss is recognized.
Historical and estimated future development costs of oil and natural gas properties, which have been evaluated and contain proved reserves, as well as the historical cost of properties that have been determined to have no future economic value, are depleted using the unit-of-production method based on proved reserves. Excluded from this amortization are costs associated with unevaluated properties, including capitalized interest on such costs. Unevaluated property costs are transferred to evaluated property costs at such time as wells are completed on the properties or the Company determines that these costs have been impaired. The Company assesses properties on an individual basis or as a group and considers the following factors, among others, to determine if these costs have been impaired: exploration program and intent to drill, remaining lease term, and the assignment of proved reserves.
Under full cost accounting rules, the Company reviews the carrying value of its proved oil and natural gas properties each quarter. Under these rules, capitalized costs of oil and natural gas properties, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization and deferred income taxes, may not exceed the sum of (a) the present value of estimated future net cash flows from proved oil and natural gas reserves, discounted at 10%, plus (b) the lower of cost or fair value of unevaluated properties, and (c) net of related tax effects (collectively called the full cost ceiling). These rules require pricing based on the preceding 12-months’ average oil and natural gas prices based on closing prices on the first day of each month and require a write-down if the net capitalized costs of proved oil and natural gas properties exceeds the full cost ceiling. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the 12-month average benchmark pricing used to estimate future net cash flows from proved reserves in accordance with the definitions and regulations of the SEC, including differential adjustments, was $58.40 and $51.34 per barrel of oil, respectively, and $3.64 and $2.98 per Mcf of natural gas, respectively. For the periods ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not recognize a write-down of oil and natural gas properties as a result of the ceiling test limitation. At December 31, 2016, the 12-month average benchmark pricing used, including differential adjustments, was $42.75 per barrel of oil and $2.48 per Mcf of natural gas and the Company recognized a $95,788 write-down of oil and natural gas properties as a result of the ceiling test limitation.
Upon the acquisition or discovery of oil and natural gas properties, the Company estimates the future net costs to dismantle, abandon and restore the property by using available geological, engineering and regulatory data. Such cost estimates are periodically updated for changes in conditions and requirements. In accordance with asset retirement obligation guidance, such costs are capitalized to the full cost pool when the related liabilities are incurred. In accordance with full cost accounting rules, assets recorded in connection with the recognition of an asset retirement obligation are included as part of the costs subject to the full cost ceiling limitation. The future cash outflows associated with settling the recorded asset retirement obligations are excluded from the computation of the present value of estimated future net revenues used in determining the full cost ceiling amount.
Other Property and Equipment
The Company depreciates its other property and equipment using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives of three to 20 years. Depreciation expense of $1,078, $900 and $793 relating to other property and equipment was included in general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The accumulated depreciation on other property and equipment was $16,562 and $16,259 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company reviews its other property and equipment for impairment when indicators of impairment exist.
The Company capitalizes interest on unevaluated oil and gas properties. Capitalized interest cannot exceed gross interest expense. During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company capitalized $56,151, $33,783 and $19,857 of interest expense.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs are stated at cost, net of amortization, and as a direct reduction from the debt’s carrying value on the balance sheet. For revolving debt arrangements, deferred financing costs are stated at cost, net of amortization, as an asset on the balance sheet. Amortization of deferred financing costs is computed using the straight-line method over the life of the loan. Amortization of deferred financing costs of $2,483, $2,150 and $3,115 were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The Company records an estimate of the fair value of liabilities for obligations associated with the costs to retire tangible long-life assets. The Company estimates the future plugging and abandonment costs of wells and related facilities, the ultimate productive life of the properties, a risk-adjusted discount rate and an inflation factor in order to determine the current present value of the asset retirement obligation. The present value of the asset retirement obligations is accreted each period and the increase to the obligation is reported as accretion expense within operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. To the extent future revisions to these assumptions impact the present value of the existing asset retirement obligation liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to evaluated properties in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note 13 for additional information.
Derivative contracts outstanding as of December 31, 2018 were not designated as accounting hedges, and are carried on the balance sheet at fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts not designated as accounting hedges are reflected in earnings as a gain or loss on derivative contracts. See Notes 7 and 8 for additional information regarding the Company’s derivative contracts.
Provisions for income taxes include deferred taxes resulting primarily from temporary differences due to different reporting methods for oil and natural gas properties for financial reporting purposes and income tax purposes. GAAP requires the recognition of a deferred tax asset for net operating loss carryforwards, statutory depletion carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. A valuation allowance is provided for that portion of deferred tax assets, if any, for which it is deemed more likely than not that a future benefit will not be realized. As of December 31, 2018 the valuation allowance was $0. See Note 12 for additional information.
The Company grants to directors and employees stock options and restricted stock unit awards (“RSU awards”) that may be settled in common stock (“RSU equity awards”) or cash (“Cash-settleable RSU awards”), some of which are subject to achievement of certain performance conditions.
Stock Options. For historical stock options the Company expected to settle in common stock, share-based compensation expense was based on the grant-date fair value as calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and recognized straight-line over the vesting period (generally three years).
RSU equity awards and Cash-settleable RSU awards. For RSU equity awards that the Company expects to settle in common stock, share-based compensation expense is based on the grant-date fair value and recognized straight-line over the vesting period (generally three years for employees and one year for directors). Certain of the Company’s RSU awards require cash settlement. Cash-settled RSU awards are accounted for as liabilities as the Company is contractually obligated to settle these awards in cash. Changes in the fair value of cash-settleable awards are recorded as adjustments to compensation expense.
For RSU equity awards with vesting terms subject to a performance condition, share-based compensation expense is based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model with the estimated value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years). For cash-settleable RSU awards subject to a performance condition that the Company expects or is required to settle in cash, share-based compensation expense is based on the fair value measured at each reporting period as calculated using a Monte Carlo pricing model, with the estimated fair value recognized over the vesting period (generally three years).
See the Accounting Standards Updates section within this footnote for information about recently adopted ASUs related to Stock Compensation.
Non-cash Investing and Supplemental Cash Flow Information
The following table sets forth the non-cash investing and supplemental cash flow information for the periods indicated:
Earnings per Share (“EPS”)
The Company’s basic EPS amounts have been computed based on the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS, using the treasury stock method, reflects the potential dilution caused by the exercise of options and vesting of restricted stock and RSUs settleable in shares.
Accounting Standards Updates
Recently issued ASUs - Leases
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842): Amendments to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASU 2016-02”). In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842): Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842 (“ASU 2018-01”). In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements (“ASU 2018-11”). Together these related amendments to GAAP represent ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”).
ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize lease assets and liabilities (with terms in excess of 12 months) on the balance sheet and disclose key quantitative and qualitative information about leasing arrangements. The Company has engaged a third-party consultant to assist with its current process of assessing existing contracts, as well as future potential contracts, and to determine the impact of its application on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The contract evaluation process includes review of drilling rig contracts, office facility leases, compressors, field vehicles and equipment, general corporate leased equipment, and other existing arrangements to support its operations that may contain a lease component.
The Company plans to elect the package of practical expedients within ASU 2016-02 that allows an entity to not reassess, prior to the effective date, (i) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, (ii) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases or (iii) initial direct costs for any existing leases, but does not plan to elect the hindsight practical expedient when determining the lease term of existing contracts at the effective date. The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. The Company currently expects to elect the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. The Company also currently expects to elect the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for the majority of classes of underlying assets.
Additionally, the Company also plans to elect the practical expedient under ASU 2018-01 and not evaluate existing or expired land easements not previously accounted for as leases prior to the effective date. The Company is working to complete its evaluation of the impact of ASC Topic 842 on its financial statements, accounting policies and internal controls, including implementation of systems and processes to capture, classify and account for leases within the scope of the new guidance and to provide the related disclosures.
The Company will adopt this guidance as of January 1, 2019, the transition date, using the simplified transition method described in ASU 2018-11, in which a cumulative-effect adjustment will be recognized in the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. At this time, the impact upon adoption of ASC Topic 842 is expected to result in recognition of additional operating liabilities, with corresponding right-of-use assets, ranging from $45 million to $55 million on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet for leases existing as of January 1, 2019, of the same amount based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Income nor Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
Recently issued ASUs - Other
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). The standard is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees, including the timing and measurement of nonemployee awards. The guidance in ASU 2018-06 is effective for public entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods therein. The Company does not expect a material impact on its consolidated financial statements upon adoption of this guidance.
Recently Adopted ASUs - Revenue Recognition
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”). The standard requires an entity to recognize revenue in a manner that depicts the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 replaced most of the existing revenue recognition requirements in GAAP. See Note 3 for additional information on revenue recognition.
The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method at the date of adoption. Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, gathering and treating fees associated with the Company’s gas processing agreements have historically been presented within lease operating expenses in the statement of operations. The current period presentation reports these fees as a reduction to natural gas revenues. The impact of adoption on the current period statement of operations is as follows:
Recently Adopted ASUs - Other
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”). The objective of the standard is to reduce the existing diversity in practice of several cash flow issues, including debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs, settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments or other debt instruments with coupon rates that are insignificant in relation to the effective interest rate of the borrowing, contingent consideration payment made after a business combination, proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims, proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies, including bank-owned life insurance policies, distributions received from equity method investees, beneficial interests in securitization transactions, and separately identifiable cash flows and application of the predominance principle. The Company adopted this update on January 1, 2018 and it did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations-Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The guidance in ASU 2017-01 clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The guidance provides a screen to determine when a set of assets and activities is not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired or disposed of is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. The Company adopted this update effective January 1, 2018. The adoption of this update did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”). The standard is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows, and will allow companies to estimate the number of stock awards expected to vest. The guidance in ASU 2016-09 is effective for public entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods therein. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2017 and it did not have a material impact on its financial statements. The Company has elected to no longer estimate forfeitures.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topics 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). The objective of the standard is to require the change during the period in total restricted cash and cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and the end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2017 and it did not have a material impact on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef